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Endometriosis: Causes and Treatment 


In endometriosis, tissue closely resembling the lining of the uterus grows outside your uterus. It is a common women’s health concern affecting around 5-10 percent of women of reproductive age (15-49 years).

The tissue behaves like the uterine lining. It thickens, breaks down, and bleeds during menstrual cycles. The blood and the tissue that has broken down cannot exit the body and becomes trapped in the pelvis, often causing inflammation, pain, and scar tissue to form.

Studies show that around 30-50 percent of women with endometriosis are infertile. Some common symptoms of the condition include painful periods, excessive bleeding, and debilitating pelvic pain.If you notice one or more of these symptoms, consult an endometriosis specialist immediately.


The exact cause of endometriosis is not known. Researchers believe that one or more of the following factors can contribute to its development.

Retrograde Menstruation

Happens when menstrual blood flows back into your pelvic cavity, rather than exiting the body. Endometrial cells in menstrual blood may stick to the pelvic walls and surface of pelvic organs such as the uterus or fallopian tubes, where they continue to thicken and bleed during every menstrual cycle.

Hormonal Imbalance

Research suggests that a hormonal imbalance may change the shape and size of cells that line the inner side of the abdomen so they resemble cells that line the inside of the uterus closely.

Surgical Scar Complication

After a hysterectomy or C-section, endometrial cells may attach to scar tissue through a surgical incision.

Embryonic Cell Transformation

Estrogen or other hormones may transform cells that form in the earliest stage of  human development (commonly known as embryonic cells) into endometrial cell implants during puberty.

Immune System Problems

An immune system problem may affect the immune system’s ability to identify and destroy endometrial cells growing outside the uterus.

Transportation of Endometrial Cells

The lymphatic system or blood vessels transport endometrial cells to other parts of the body spreading them throughout the body. 


Seek endometriosis medical treatmentas soon as possible. If endometriosis is left untreated, endometriosis symptoms can worsen over time. Tissue growing outside your uterus can cause cysts, adhesions or scar tissues, which can lead to excruciating pain, especially during menstrual periods.

Depending on your age, the severity of your condition, and future plans (whether you want to get pregnant in future) an endometriosis specialist, NJ can either prescribe pain medications or recommend hormone therapy, conservative surgery or hysterectomy.

Pain Medication

You can use OTC pain medications such as ibuprofen or naproxen to manage pain caused by endometriosis. Your doctor may also prescribe GnRH medications that suppress ovulation as a way to reduce pain.

Hormonal Therapy

Many doctors recommend birth control pills, patches, and vaginal rings to reduce the production of hormones that regulate ovulation. Hormonal contraceptives can reduce the thickness of the uterine lining, helping reduce endometriosis pain.

Conservative Surgery

If you experience intense pain or want to conceive, your doctor may perform surgery to remove as much tissue as possible.


In severe cases or when nothing works, doctors may remove the uterus.

Women’s Healthcare of Princeton is a leading gynecology practice in Princeton. Our gynecologists treat the root causes of women’s reproductive health problems, rather than their symptoms. To make an appointment, call 609-430-1900.

Dr. Shyama Mathews

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